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Title: GNSS-free outdoor localization techniques for resource-constrained IoT architectures : a literature review
Authors: Moradbeikie, Azin
Keshavarz, Ahmad
Rostami, Habib
Paiva, Sara
Lopes, Sérgio Ivan
Keywords: IoT
Outdoor localization
Smart cities
Smart transportation
Smart healthcare
Smart manufacturing
Issue Date: Nov-2021
Citation: Moradbeikie, A., Keshavarz, A., Rostami, H., Paiva, S., & Lopes, S.I. (2021). GNSS-free outdoor localization techniques for resource-constrained IoT architectures: a literature review. Applied Sciences, 11, Artigo 10793.
Abstract: Large-scale deployments of the Internet of Things (IoT) are adopted for performance improvement and cost reduction in several application domains. The four main IoT application domains covered throughout this article are smart cities, smart transportation, smart healthcare, and smart manufacturing. To increase IoT applicability, data generated by the IoT devices need to be time-stamped and spatially contextualized. LPWANs have become an attractive solution for outdoor localization and received significant attention from the research community due to low-power, low-cost, and long-range communication. In addition, its signals can be used for communication and localization simultaneously. There are different proposed localization methods to obtain the IoT relative location. Each category of these proposed methods has pros and cons that make them useful for specific IoT systems. Nevertheless, there are some limitations in proposed localization methods that need to be eliminated to meet the IoT ecosystem needs completely. This has motivated this work and provided the following contributions: (1) definition of the main requirements and limitations of outdoor localization techniques for the IoT ecosystem, (2) description of the most relevant GNSS-free outdoor localization methods with a focus on LPWAN technologies, (3) survey the most relevant methods used within the IoT ecosystem for improving GNSS-free localization accuracy, and (4) discussion covering the open challenges and future directions within the field. Some of the important open issues that have different requirements in different IoT systems include energy consumption, security and privacy, accuracy, and scalability. This paper provides an overview of research works that have been published between 2018 to July 2021 and made available through the Google Scholar database.
ISSN: 2076-3417
Appears in Collections:ESTG - Artigos indexados à WoS/Scopus

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